Thursday, May 21, 2020

How To Translate To and From Spanish and English

Some of the best advice you can get when you start translating to and from English or Spanish is to translate for meaning rather than to translate words. Sometimes what you want to translate will be straightforward enough that there wont be much difference between the two approaches. But more often than not, paying attention to what someone is saying — not just the words the person is using — will pay off in doing a better job of conveying the idea that someone is trying to get across. Key Takeaways When translating from one language to another, aim for conveying the meaning rather than translating individual words.Literal translations often fall short because they can fail to take into account the context and nuances of meaning.There is often no single best translation, so two translators can legitimately differ on their word choices. Translation Raised Questions One example of an approach you might take in translating can be seen in the answer to a question that a reader raised via email about an article that used to appear on this site: When youre translating from one language to another, how do you decide which word to use? Im asking because I saw recently  that you translated llamativas as bold, but that isnt one of the words listed when I looked up that word in the dictionary. The question referred to my translation of the sentence  ¿La fà ³rmula revolucionaria para obtener pestaà ±as llamativas? (taken from a Spanish-language Maybelline mascara ad) as The revolutionary formula for getting bold eyelashes? The writer was correct was correct that dictionaries dont give bold as a possible translation, but bold at least is closer in concept to the dictionary definition of what I used in my first draft: Then I used thick, which isnt even close to any standard of llamativo. Let me explain the various philosophies of translation before discussing that particular word. In general, it can be said that there are two extreme approaches in the way one can translate from one language to another. The first is seeking a literal translation, sometimes known as formal equivalence, in which an attempt is made to translate using the words that correspond as exactly as possible in the two languages, allowing, of course, for the grammatical differences but without paying a great deal of attention to context. A second extreme is paraphrasing, sometimes called making a free or loose translation. One problem with the first approach is that literal translations can be awkward. For example, it might seem more exact to translate the Spanish obtener as to obtain, but most of the time to get will do just as well and sounds less pretentious. An obvious problem with paraphrasing is that the translator may not accurately convey the intent of the speaker, especially where precision of language is required. So many of the best translations take a middle ground, sometimes known as dynamic equivalence — trying to convey the thoughts and intent behind the original as close as possible, veering from the literal where needed to do so. When Theres No Exact Equivalent In the sentence that led to the readers question, the adjective llamativo doesnt have an exact equivalent in English. It is derived from the verb llamar (sometimes translated as to call), so broadly speaking it refers to something that calls attention to itself. Dictionaries usually provide translations such as gaudy, showy, brightly colored, flashy, and loud (as in a loud shirt). However, some of those translations have somewhat negative connotations — something certainly not intended by the writers of the ad. The others dont work well for describing eyelashes. My first translation was a paraphrase; mascara is designed to make eyelashes appear thicker and therefore more noticeable, so I went with thick. After all, in English thats a common way to describe the kind of eyelashes that Maybelline customers would want. But upon reflection, that translation seemed  inadequate. This mascara, another part of the ad pointed out, not only makes the eyelashes look thicker, but also lo nger and exageradas or exaggerated. I considered alternative ways of expressing llamativas, but attractive seemed a bit too weak for an advertisement, enhanced seemed too formal, and attention-getting seemed to convey the thought behind the Spanish word in this context but didnt seem quite right for an ad. So I went with bold. It seemed to me to do a good job of stating the purpose of the product and is also a short word with a positive connotation that might work well in an ad. (If I had wanted to go for an extremely loose interpretation, I might have tried  Whats the secret to having eyelashes people will notice?) A different translator very well might have used a different word, and there very well could be words that would work better. In fact, another reader suggested striking — a great choice. But translation is often more art than science, and that can involve judgment and creativity at least as much as it does knowing the right words.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Reading Response Journals For Into The Wild - 1381 Words

Betsy Rodriguez Mrs. Robinson AP English and Composition Reading Response Journals for â€Å"Into the Wild† Journal # 1 29, July 2016 The first scene starts off with Gallien driving four miles picking up a hitchhiker that was shivering on the side of the road asking to be taken to to the unmarked wilderness in Alaska. The guy would say his last name as though he was trying to hide something. Gallien impeditilly thought that McCandless was just another delusional visitor to the Alaskan Frontier. When Gallien started talking to Alex McCandless he started to notice that Alex was actually very intelligent and thoughtful.Gallien also realized that Alex had come unprepared for that conditions of the wilderness. He had no food but a 10 bag of rice, his hiking boots weren’t waterproof, and his rifle was so small that it couldn’t be able to kill a big enough animal that he needed to survive.McCandless lacked on having an ax,snowshoes,and a compass to provide direction in the woods.To talk Alex out of goign to the in marked route in the wilderness north of Mount Mckiney. I thought this scene was significant bec ause it Gallen picks up a hitchhiker that plans to get out into the wilderness for a couple months and is totally unprepared to survive.A real hitchhiker would have had a the necessities to survive in the wild.I was surprised that Alex didn t even seem worried and was confident in what he had when Gallien told him that he might not always be able to have food to hunt.When AlexShow MoreRelatedSummary Of Vaccines And Autism By Bernard Rimland953 Words   |  4 PagesSummary of â€Å"Vaccines and Autism† In the journal of â€Å"Vaccines and Autism† author Bernard Rimland looks at the possible role of vaccines in autism. Rimland provides crucial data in understanding autism, the possible role of vaccines in autism, and the risks of vaccines in certain children. Rimland states before his article that, â€Å"There is no consensus about biological determents of autism† (708). 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These prototypes are described as case studies in the next three chapters. 1.4 Study method: Qualitative

Personal Responsibility and College Success Free Essays

College Success: How Personal Responsibility Plays a Role College Success: How Personal Responsibility Plays a Role Little Johnny walks into a classroom and sits down with the rest of the class. As the bell rings the teacher asks all students to turn in their homework. The teacher notices that Johnny does not turn in anything and asks him â€Å"Where’s your homework? † His response, â€Å"The dog ate it! † In today’s society it is much easier to blame others for your actions instead of taking full responsibility for your own. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Responsibility and College Success or any similar topic only for you Order Now Handling certain situations in your life, whether it be school, work, or social events requires some type of personal responsibility. Personal responsibility is showing accountability for the obligations that a person has control over. This means that you have to be accountable for your actions in the situations that you are involved in whether they are in your control or not. Being responsible will help to reach your goals in life when it comes to your school, career and family. In order in to succeed in college you have to be a responsible student. Love being a student. When people get married they take on the role of being a spouse. With this role comes responsibility. Nurturing the relationship, children to raise, bills to pay, cleaning, and cooking are just some of the responsibilities that married couples have. However, they love the role of the spouse (otherwise they would not have gotten married) and with loving the role they easily take on the responsibilities. As a student, you have to use the same approach. When we love being a student, responsibilities will not seem like dreadful tasks, but will be something we love to do. Not only much you love your new role you have to own it. Steven goes to Carmax and buys a new car. Being the owner of a new car, he has responsibilities of taking care of it. Regular oil changes, inspections, new tires, and rotation are just of the tasks that come along with regular maintenance. Same as being a student, owing your role will help you succeed in college. Regular reading, attending class, studying for examations is just the regular maintenance that you have to do to be successful. Once you love and own your role of being a student, living the student life comes into play. Mothers have the life of taking care of the children, cleaning, cooking, and running errands. Fathers have the life of going to work and providing for his family. Teachers have the life of teaching their students information, grading papers, and helping students who have fallen behind. Everyone has a life and many have different lives. Being a student you have to live the student life. Doing homework, not staying out late, plan your assignments and projects ahead are all a part of the student life. By incorporating personal responsibility into my education will also help me succeed and eventually help me graduate. Developing an action plan and incorporating it in your life will also help you succeed in college. Time management and planning will be the biggest responsibility. If you have a busy life already and have added school into your life, it would be beneficial to map and plan out your day ahead of time. Your time may be tight but being responsible and sticking to your to-do list will help you get everything done and be prepared for the next day. Also not procrastinating will also help you become a responsible student. Everyone has his or her days where they do not want to do anything and just be lazy. However, this will not help you succeed in where you want to be. Continuing to remind yourself to complete your tasks will help you in getting things done. Finally, another action plan is money management. School is expensive and being responsible for money now and in the future will help. Only borrowing what you need and making planning financially while in school will benefit you in college. Personal responsibility plays a major role in everyone’s life. Whether it is school, personal, or work, being responsible will help you accomplish so much out of life. Love, owing, and living the life of a student are tools to help you get a handle on being responsible in school. Planning ahead and time and money management will also help you in college and help you succeed. Plan on being responsible for all you actions in the situations that you have placed yourself in and whatever life may throw in your way. Going back to school was probably a big decision for you and so plan on making the most out of it. How to cite Personal Responsibility and College Success, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Tattooing And Piercing Essays - Fashion, Body Modification, Tattoo

Tattooing And Piercing There are various aspects through which people, especially youth, identify themselves. People are always sending some sort of communication out at all times, whether it is subconscious or not. Images and styles are adopted which communicate meanings about the individual to his/her peers and to society. Styles of dress, language, music, and dance are some of the ways that portray one's own unique symbols, values, and meanings. One other such signifier of identity is through body modification, particularly tattooing and body piercing. In today's society people have adopted the new style or trend of body modification. There are many reasons in which people obtain piercings and tattoos. Those who modify, manipulate and mutilate their bodies do so for many reasons. Some say it's simply exciting and pleasurable, or part of the latest fad. Others place it in the context of art, ritual or self-expression-they say it's an act with cultural and social significance. In contrast, many people can 't understand why someone would choose to put so many holes in their body or cut their skin. They see body modification as self-destructive, much like anorexia or bulimia. Below I will talk about why, what, where, and how people modify their body and how people look upon them. Youth and adolescence is one of, if not the most, significant and influential moments in one's life, when youth are seeking their identity of who they are. Tattooing and piercing are one of the many ways through which youth may express their identity, for they are symbolic representations of how the self is conceived or understood. People may also want themselves to be portrayed as someone who they are not. For example, someone gets a tattoo or earrings just to look tough or cool. Getting a piercing or tattoo symbolises a certain change in ones life. These changes, no matter how minuscule they may seem, have a huge impact on a person's identity. Usually when a youth gets a tattoo or earring, they are symbolisi ng their maturity by finally being able to make a decision on their own and taking matters into their own hands. Body modification is clearly a means by which youth seek to displace authority and etiquette. Most youth don't think about the lasting affect it has on there later life when they begin to modify their body. Yes, piercings you can take out but tattoos will always be there, especially in the business world, tattoos are nothing to be desired and that you could possibly risk a job because of it. Body piercing is believed to be a self-imposed rite of passage. By this I mean that people, in general, feel an instinctive drive to undergo some sort of a rite of passage. If society denies them this, they may create one for themselves in order to feel as though they have a place in society. Almost everyone has been tempted to get a tattoo or piercing, but did you ever ask your self why you wanted one? This theory tries to explain that it is natural and instinctive and possibly even necessary in order to find your place in society. Along with this idea, there is a concept that deals with the issue of pain. Sociology Essays

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Tahiti essays

Tahiti essays Maeva... or as the friendly locals would say, welcome. For those of you honeymooners who seek an exotic paradise, there can be nowhere on Earth that compares with the islands of French Polynesia. French Polynesia is a Garden of Eden with a blend of rainforests, waterfalls, colorful flora that mixes magically with soft volcanic beaches and turquoise sea, a spectacular blend of nature. With stunning sunsets, colourful reefs, tranquil lagoons and volcanic beaches fringed with coconut palm trees, Tahiti spells magic and romance. Its as if this secret pocket of the world is one perpetual honeymoon, with its relaxed days, starry nights and soothing ocean waves. Often called "The Island of Love," Tahiti is the largest of the 118 islands. Born in a series of volcanic upheavals nearly three million years ago, the island of Tahiti is a range of lushly forested peaks plunging deep into the sea. The island's interior is astounding; waterfalls cascade over sheer cliffs into rainforests below and rivers cut through dense valleys of giant ferns, wild fruit trees, and shimmering flowers. Most hotels are on the northwest coast of the island on a 6-mile stretch between Punaauia and Papeete. While a visit to the town itself doesn't constitute a true visit to the island, there are interesting things to do there - - shop at numerous boutiques or the open-air marketplace, visit one of several waterfront cafes and restaurants, or tour the Museum of Tahiti and Her Islands nearby. I recommend staying at Bora Bora for at least a couple of nights, only 45 minutes flight from Papeete. If this doesnt impress your partner then I dont know what will. Bora Bora lies 240km northwest of Tahiti in the leeward Society Islands. The main island is in the centre of a multi-coloured lagoon inside a protective necklace of coral. Be prepared the first glimpse of Bora Bora is love at first sight. Sailors, poets, adventurers, ...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Good Essay Topics

Good Essay Topics Good Essay Topics Good Essay Topics Any essay written on persuasive essay topics must have an introduction, main body and conclusion. You may write what you want from any perspective, however, the essential parts for the argumentative essay topics are the same! Introduction should focus on the relevance of essay topic or explanation of the scientific interest to the issue, describing the problems that should be considered for the full disclosure of the essay topic. The main text of college essay writing is, in fact, the detailed disclosure of the topic. You may use recent data, examples, and facts to support the thoughts of essay writer. Conclusion answers the questions presented in the Introduction, including findings and perhaps recommendations of college essay writer. Essay Writing Tips While writing an essay, you may take into account the following examples of the topic 'The influence of the computer games on the forming psychological dependence of the man' . Essay introduction: With the appearance of computers appeared computer games that at once also have found a lot of fans. With improvements of computers, the games were developing as well, attracting more and more people. So far computer technology has reached a level of development that enables software programmers to create very realistic games with a good  image, and sound processing. With each leap in the field of Computer Technology increases the number of people, popularly known as computer fans or gamers' Essay conclusion: So, mankind is immersing in computers and computer networks, with each day more and more people (particularly children) are psychologically dependent on computer games. Every day they come to the computer and receive dose - those 20 minutes, may be an hour or more... This is a problem. We can only suggest to what it might lead the mankind in its further development. We should think about it since today. Miscellaneous scientific disciplines must come together to study this area, and Psychology should be at the head of these works - the works on the exploration psychological aspects of human interaction with computers. Writing the main body on such an essay topic you must explain why the computer games are really so dangerous, to what sequences they may lead, what the probable solution to this problem and the most important what you think about this essay issue. Are you agree or disagree with the essay topic? Why? May be you also computer fan? provides you with an opportunity to order professional custom essay writing services.   We are able to write good essays on any topic and of any complexity.   Moreover, we are never late with delivery!

Friday, February 14, 2020

TPP-Pacific Trade Partnership and International Business Research Paper - 1

TPP-Pacific Trade Partnership and International Business - Research Paper Example Trans-Pacific Partnership is also of great interest because of its ambition to extend well beyond the limits of trade and trade policy including other different issues that affects trade agreements. The common issues that are likely to affect TPP are linked to the ambition of TPP to go beyond the limits of trade and its policies including trade in services, intellectual property, and technical barriers to trade. Supply chain complication has been cited as a major challenge likely to face Trans-Pacific partnership especially in this era of global business and cross enterprise collaboration. As stated by Inkyo et al (145), the Supply chain conference held in 2003 had cited development in the digital economy such as cloud computing, green growth and inadequate approaches to ensuring competitive business environment as some of the major challenges that are likely to face TPP. However, according to Deardorff (5), TPP is creating a framework to deal with all concerns and that could be the reason for the long time negotiations. The areas of negations in the Trans-Pacific Partnership include services and investments and other barriers to trade include in services, goods and investments, capacity building, government procurement, custom rules, labor, phytosanitary standards, e-commerce, telecommunications, intellectual property and technical barriers to trade. Researchers and economists have cited a lot of implications of what has been described as â€Å"spaghetti or noodle bowl† problem of overlapping preferential trade agreements (PTA) at the beginning of the year 2012, the world trade organization had reported more than 319 agreements that were already on force. According to Inkyo et al (147), each agreement signed between two or more countries continue to complicate and increases the complexity of the global trading system. The new PTA, Trans-Pacific Partnership that is currently under

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Structure of Interest Rates and Real Interest Rates Coursework

The Structure of Interest Rates and Real Interest Rates - Coursework Example The credit card firms are not usually bound towards any form of specific limits regarding their ultimate interest rates. They can thus charge any amount they may wish to as long as they have commendable competitive rates with other existing credit card firms. Finally, the rates are often higher on credit cards so as to encourage people to make payments on time. It is based on the reasoning that; the longer you delay your repayments, the higher the interest penalties. The corporate bond’s credit ratings are often higher than those offered by the government bonds to a greater extent. This is because the corporate bonds usually have low ratings, thereby giving out an implication of a higher credit risk possibility as compared to the investment-grade bonds (Schwartzman, 1992). Therefore, they tend to offer a little bit higher rates so as to curb with the increased risks. On the other hand, the government bond’s credit ratings are often lower because they are not ultimately secured by any form of assets. They are instead backed up by the credit and full faith of the issuer. This is hence what brings out this form of disparity. Recession generally refers to a situation when there is a temporary decline with regards to the economic stability, whereby the trade and the industrial operations are totally reduced. It is generally identified by the fall in the GDP over a given successive quarters. Based on this, the interest rates tend to be reduced since it impacts on all the businesses (Guttentag & Cagan, 1969). Both small and large ventures tend to fall typically during this period. Ultimately, at such a moment the business borrowers and consumers are the ones who tend to determine the level of interests they are opting to pay for the borrowed money. There is often a greater interaction between the tax systems and interaction. This is due to a major binding factor between them that touches on the aspect of the amount of

Friday, January 24, 2020

Quarks :: essays research papers fc

Quarks   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quarks- any group of subatomic particles believed to be among the basic components if matter   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quarks are believed to be the fundamental constituents of matter, and have no apparent structure. They are the particles that make up protons and neutrons, which make up the nucleus of atoms. Also, particles that interact by means of the strong force, the force that holds parts of the nucleus together, are explained in terms of quarks. Other baryons are explained in terms of quarks(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quarks have mass and exhibit spin, the type of intrinsic angular momentum corresponding to rotation around an axis, equal to half the basic quantum mechanical unit of angular momentum, obeying Pauli's exclusion principle. This principle that no two particles having half integral spin can exist in the same quantum state(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quarks always occur in combination with other quarks, they never occur alone. Physicists have attempted to knock a single quark free from a group using a particle accelerator, but have failed. Mesons contain a quark and an antiquark, up, down, and strange, while baryons contain three quarks distinguished by flavours. Each has a charge that is a fraction of that of an electron. Up and down quarks make up protons and neutrons, and can be observed in ordinary matter. Strange quarks can be observed in omega-minus and other short lived subatomic particles which play on part in ordinary matter(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The interpretation of quarks as physical entities poses two problems. First, sometimes two or three identical quarks have to be in the same quantum state which, because they have to have half integral spin, violates Pauli's exclusion principal. Second, quarks appear to not be able to be separated from the particles they make up. Although the force holding the quarks together is strong it is improbable that it could withstand bombardment from high energy and neutrinions in a particle accelorator(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quantum chromodynamics(QCD) ascribes colours red, green, and blue to quarks and minus-red, minus-green, and minus-blue to antiquarks. Combinations of quarks must contain equal mixtures of colours so that they cancel each other out. Colour involves the exchange of massless particles, gluons. Gluons transfer the forces which bind quarks together. Quarks change colour as they emit and absorb gluons. The exchange of gluons is what maintains the right quark colour distribution. The forces carried by gluons weaken when they are close together , at a distance of about 10-13 cm, about the diameter of a proton, quarks behave as if they were free. This is called asymptomatic freedom(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When one draws the quarks apart the force gets stronger, this is in direct contrast with electromagnetic force which gets weaker with the square of

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Consumer Psychology

PART B DEFINITION Consumer psychology is a specialty area that studies how our thoughts, beliefs, feelings and perceptions influence how people buy and relate to goods and services. One formal definition of the field describes it as â€Å"the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. STAGES IN CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS CONSUMER INDIVIDUAL FACTORSConsumer individual factor is divided by five. Age, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle and personality. This five factors is affected to consumer behavior to buy same product or services. †¢Age Age and life-cycle have potential impact on the consumer buying behavior. It is obvious that the consumers change the purchase of goods and services with the passage of time. Family life-cycle consists of different stages such young si ngles, married couples, unmarried couples etc which help marketers to develop appropriate products for each stage. 00PLUS product affects to this categories because when adult, people are active doing some sport and they need 1ooPLUS because 1 0 0 P L U S ’scientifically-testedi sotonic formulation of carbohydrates, electrolytes and water enables faster and more effective hydration, thus enhancing a person’s capability to perform at his or her peak. In fact, in a recent study, 100PLUS was clinically proven to rehydrate and re-energise faster, and provides 43% more endurance, than water alone. Read also Memory – ForgettingThe advertising also can attract consumer to buy this product because they use number 1 badminton player Dato Lee Chong Wei in the advertisement. This can attract people because many people use Dato Lee Chong Wei as their idol. †¢Occupation The occupation of a person has significant impact on his buying behavior. For example a manger in sport center selling 100PLUS product in the business to make more profit. This is because they know that when people sports, they need to cover back their energy and 100PLUS product is suitable in this situation. Economic Situation Consumer economic situation has great influence on his buying behavior. If the income and savings of a customer is high then he will purchase more expensive products. On the other hand, a person with low income and savings will purchase inexpensive products. However, 100PLUS product is suitable to all economic situation status because the price is not expensive. Beside that, they use Dato Lee Chong Wei in advertising make this product is more popular that the other product. †¢LifestyleLifestyle of customers is another import factor affecting the consumer buying behavior. Lifestyle refers to the way a person lives in a society and is expressed by the things in his/her surroundings. It is determined by customer interests, opinions, activities etc and shapes his whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. When people active in sporting, they need a carbohydrate water to make they still have energy to continue sports. People hwo active in played badminton also attractive to the advertisement because they want to became like Dato Lee Chong Wei. Personality Personality changes from person to person, time to time and place to place. Therefore it can greatly influence the buying behavior of customers. Actually, Personality is not what one wears; rather it is the totality of behavior of a man in different circumstances. It has different characteristics su ch as: dominance, aggressiveness, self-confidence etc which can be useful to determine the consumer behavior for particular product or service. This also can attract people who like to do something challenging because they need energy to become vigorous.MOTIVATION AND GOAL People who drink 100Plus will motivate they self because it will bring back they energy to achieve they goal. BRAND PERSONALITY Brand personality is the way a brand speaks and behaves. It means assigning human personality traits/characteristics to a brand so as to achieve differentiation. These characteristics signify brand behaviour through both individuals representing the brand as well as through advertising, packaging, etc. When brand image or brand identity is expressed in terms of human traits, it is called brand personality.Advantage-already popular in Malaysia, has many flavor, restore energy quickly easily to find. Disadvantage-100plus is only isotonic water. CONSUMER IMAGERY Consumers have a number of en during perceptions, or images, which are particulari relavant to the study of consumer behavior. These include the image they hold of themselves, and their perceived images of products and product categories, of retail stores, and of producers. People will find 100Plus because they know that 100Plus is a isotonic drink and its to restore energy. 100Plus also more cheaper then another isotonic drink.MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY 100 PLUS 100 PLUS Abraham Maslow is well renowned for proposing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 1943. This theory is a classical depiction of human motivation. This theory is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy of five needs within each individual. The urgency of these needs varies. These five needs are as follows- Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of air, water, food, clothing and shelter. In other words, physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life.Safety needs- Safety needs include physical, environm ental and emotional safety and protection. For instance- Job security, financial security, protection from animals, family security, health security, etc. Social needs- Social needs include the need for love, affection, care, belongingness, and friendship. Esteem needs- Esteem needs are of two types: internal esteem needs (self- respect, confidence, competence, achievement and freedom) and external esteem needs (recognition, power, status, attention and admiration).Self-actualization need- This include the urge to become what you are capable of becoming / what you have the potential to become. It includes the need for growth and self-contentment. It also includes desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity and being aesthetic. The self- actualization needs are never fully satiable. As an individual grows psychologically, opportunities keep cropping up to continue growing. From this theory that 100plus at the esteem needs level because people need it to restore ene rgy to make they achieve what they target and make people proud to them.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Black History Month and Lesser Known African-Americans

The term little known black Americans can refer to all the people who have made contributions to America and to civilization, but whose names are not as well-known as many others or not known at all. For instance, we hear about Martin Luther King Jr., George Washington Carver, Sojourner Truth, Rosa Parks, and many other famous Black Americans, but what have you heard about Edward Bouchet, or Bessie Coleman, or Matthew Alexander Henson? Black Americans have been making contributions to America from the start, but like countless other Americans whose achievements have altered and enriched our lives, these Black Americans remain unknown. Its important, though, to point out their contributions because too often people dont realize that Black Americans have been making contributions to our country from its inception. In many cases, what they accomplished they managed to do against all odds, in spite of overwhelming obstacles. These people are an inspiration to everyone who finds him or herself in circumstances that seem impossible to overcome. Early Contributions In 1607, English settlers arrived in what would later become Virginia and founded a settlement they named Jamestown. In 1619, a Dutch ship arrived in Jamestown and traded its cargo of slaves for food. Many of these slaves later were freemen with their own land, contributing to the success of the colony. We do know some of their names, like Anthony Johnson, and its a pretty interesting story. But Africans were involved in more than settling Jamestown. Some were part of the early explorations of the New World. For example, Estevanico, a slave from Morocco, was part of a group who had been asked by the Mexican Viceroy in 1536 to go on an expedition into the territories that are now Arizona and New Mexico. He went ahead of the groups leader and was the first non-native to set foot in those lands. While most Blacks originally arrived in America primarily as slaves, many were free by the time the Revolutionary War was fought. One of these was Crispus Attucks, the son of a slave. Most of them, though, like so many who fought in that war, remain relatively nameless to us. But anyone who thinks that it was only the white man who chose to fight for the principle of individual freedom might want to take a look at the Forgotten Patriots Project from the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution). They have documented the names of thousands of African-Americans, Native Americans, and those of mixed heritage who fought against the British for freedom. Not-So-Famous Black Americans You Should Know George Washington Carver (1864-1943)Carver is a well-known African-American. Who isnt aware of his work with peanuts? Hes on this list, though, because of one of his contributions that we dont often hear about: The Tuskegee Institute Movable School. Carver established this school to introduce modern agricultural techniques and tools to farmers in Alabama. Movable schools are now used around the world.Edward Bouchet (1852-1918)Bouchet was the son of a former slave who had moved to New Haven, Connecticut. Only three schools there accepted Black students at the time, so Bouchets educational opportunities were limited. However, he managed to get admitted to Yale and became the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. and the 6th American of any race to earn one in physics. Although segregation prevented him from attaining the kind of position he should have been able to get with his outstanding credentials (6th in his graduating class), he taught for 26 years at the Institute for Colored Y outh, serving as an inspiration to generations of young African-Americans.Jean Baptiste Point du Sable (1745?-1818)DuSable was a Black man from Haiti is who is credited with founding Chicago. His father was a Frenchman in Haiti and his mother was an African slave. Its not clear how he arrived in New Orleans from Haiti, but once he did, he traveled from there to what is now modern-day Peoria, Illinois. Although he was not the first to pass through the area, he was the first to establish a permanent settlement, where he lived for at least twenty years. He set up a trading post on the Chicago River, where it meets Lake Michigan, and became a wealthy man with a reputation as a man of good character and sound business acumen.Matthew Alexander Henson (1866-1955)Henson was the son of free-born tenant farmers, but his early life was difficult. He started his life as an explorer at the age of eleven when he ran away from an abusive home. In 1891, Henson went with Robert Peary on the first of several trips to Greenland. Peary was determined to find the geographic North Pole. In 1909, Peary and Henson went on what was to be their final trip, the one on which they reached the North Pole. Henson was actually the first to set foot on the North Pole, but when the two returned home, it was Peary who received all the credit. Because he was Black, Henson was virtually ignored.Bessie Coleman (1892 -1926)Bessie Coleman was one of 13 children born to a Native American father and an African-American mother. They lived in Texas and faced the kinds of difficulties many Black Americans faced at the time, including segregation and disenfranchisement. Bessie worked hard in her childhood, picking cotton and helping her mother with the laundry she took in. But Bessie didnt let any of it stop her. She educated herself and managed to graduate from high school. After seeing some newsreels on aviation, Bessie became interested in becoming a pilot, but no U.S flight schools would accept her be cause she was Black and because she was female. Undeterred, she saved enough money to go to France where she heard women could be pilots. In 1921, she became the first Black woman in the world to earn a pilots license.Lewis Latimer (1848-1928)Latimer was the son of runaway slaves who had settled in Chelsea, Massachusetts. After serving in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War, Latimer got a job as an office boy in a patent office. Because of his ability to draw, he became a draftsman, eventually getting promoted to be the head draftsman. Although he has a large number of inventions to his name, including a safety elevator, perhaps his greatest achievement is his work on the electric light bulb. We can thank him for the success of Edisons lightbulb, which originally had a lifespan of just a few days. It was Latimer who found a way to create a filament system that prevented the carbon in the filament from breaking, thereby extending the life of the lightbulb. Thanks to Latimer, lightbulb s became cheaper and more efficient, which made it possible for them to be installed in homes and on the ​streets. Latimer was the only Black American on Edisons elite team of inventors. What we  love about the biographies of these six people is that not only did they have exceptional talent, but they did not allow the circumstances of their birth to determine who they were or what they could accomplish. That is certainly a lesson for all of us.