Friday, January 24, 2020

Quarks :: essays research papers fc

Quarks   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quarks- any group of subatomic particles believed to be among the basic components if matter   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quarks are believed to be the fundamental constituents of matter, and have no apparent structure. They are the particles that make up protons and neutrons, which make up the nucleus of atoms. Also, particles that interact by means of the strong force, the force that holds parts of the nucleus together, are explained in terms of quarks. Other baryons are explained in terms of quarks(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quarks have mass and exhibit spin, the type of intrinsic angular momentum corresponding to rotation around an axis, equal to half the basic quantum mechanical unit of angular momentum, obeying Pauli's exclusion principle. This principle that no two particles having half integral spin can exist in the same quantum state(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quarks always occur in combination with other quarks, they never occur alone. Physicists have attempted to knock a single quark free from a group using a particle accelerator, but have failed. Mesons contain a quark and an antiquark, up, down, and strange, while baryons contain three quarks distinguished by flavours. Each has a charge that is a fraction of that of an electron. Up and down quarks make up protons and neutrons, and can be observed in ordinary matter. Strange quarks can be observed in omega-minus and other short lived subatomic particles which play on part in ordinary matter(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The interpretation of quarks as physical entities poses two problems. First, sometimes two or three identical quarks have to be in the same quantum state which, because they have to have half integral spin, violates Pauli's exclusion principal. Second, quarks appear to not be able to be separated from the particles they make up. Although the force holding the quarks together is strong it is improbable that it could withstand bombardment from high energy and neutrinions in a particle accelorator(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Quantum chromodynamics(QCD) ascribes colours red, green, and blue to quarks and minus-red, minus-green, and minus-blue to antiquarks. Combinations of quarks must contain equal mixtures of colours so that they cancel each other out. Colour involves the exchange of massless particles, gluons. Gluons transfer the forces which bind quarks together. Quarks change colour as they emit and absorb gluons. The exchange of gluons is what maintains the right quark colour distribution. The forces carried by gluons weaken when they are close together , at a distance of about 10-13 cm, about the diameter of a proton, quarks behave as if they were free. This is called asymptomatic freedom(1985 Quarks).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When one draws the quarks apart the force gets stronger, this is in direct contrast with electromagnetic force which gets weaker with the square of

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Consumer Psychology

PART B DEFINITION Consumer psychology is a specialty area that studies how our thoughts, beliefs, feelings and perceptions influence how people buy and relate to goods and services. One formal definition of the field describes it as â€Å"the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. STAGES IN CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS CONSUMER INDIVIDUAL FACTORSConsumer individual factor is divided by five. Age, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle and personality. This five factors is affected to consumer behavior to buy same product or services. †¢Age Age and life-cycle have potential impact on the consumer buying behavior. It is obvious that the consumers change the purchase of goods and services with the passage of time. Family life-cycle consists of different stages such young si ngles, married couples, unmarried couples etc which help marketers to develop appropriate products for each stage. 00PLUS product affects to this categories because when adult, people are active doing some sport and they need 1ooPLUS because 1 0 0 P L U S ’scientifically-testedi sotonic formulation of carbohydrates, electrolytes and water enables faster and more effective hydration, thus enhancing a person’s capability to perform at his or her peak. In fact, in a recent study, 100PLUS was clinically proven to rehydrate and re-energise faster, and provides 43% more endurance, than water alone. Read also Memory – ForgettingThe advertising also can attract consumer to buy this product because they use number 1 badminton player Dato Lee Chong Wei in the advertisement. This can attract people because many people use Dato Lee Chong Wei as their idol. †¢Occupation The occupation of a person has significant impact on his buying behavior. For example a manger in sport center selling 100PLUS product in the business to make more profit. This is because they know that when people sports, they need to cover back their energy and 100PLUS product is suitable in this situation. Economic Situation Consumer economic situation has great influence on his buying behavior. If the income and savings of a customer is high then he will purchase more expensive products. On the other hand, a person with low income and savings will purchase inexpensive products. However, 100PLUS product is suitable to all economic situation status because the price is not expensive. Beside that, they use Dato Lee Chong Wei in advertising make this product is more popular that the other product. †¢LifestyleLifestyle of customers is another import factor affecting the consumer buying behavior. Lifestyle refers to the way a person lives in a society and is expressed by the things in his/her surroundings. It is determined by customer interests, opinions, activities etc and shapes his whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. When people active in sporting, they need a carbohydrate water to make they still have energy to continue sports. People hwo active in played badminton also attractive to the advertisement because they want to became like Dato Lee Chong Wei. Personality Personality changes from person to person, time to time and place to place. Therefore it can greatly influence the buying behavior of customers. Actually, Personality is not what one wears; rather it is the totality of behavior of a man in different circumstances. It has different characteristics su ch as: dominance, aggressiveness, self-confidence etc which can be useful to determine the consumer behavior for particular product or service. This also can attract people who like to do something challenging because they need energy to become vigorous.MOTIVATION AND GOAL People who drink 100Plus will motivate they self because it will bring back they energy to achieve they goal. BRAND PERSONALITY Brand personality is the way a brand speaks and behaves. It means assigning human personality traits/characteristics to a brand so as to achieve differentiation. These characteristics signify brand behaviour through both individuals representing the brand as well as through advertising, packaging, etc. When brand image or brand identity is expressed in terms of human traits, it is called brand personality.Advantage-already popular in Malaysia, has many flavor, restore energy quickly easily to find. Disadvantage-100plus is only isotonic water. CONSUMER IMAGERY Consumers have a number of en during perceptions, or images, which are particulari relavant to the study of consumer behavior. These include the image they hold of themselves, and their perceived images of products and product categories, of retail stores, and of producers. People will find 100Plus because they know that 100Plus is a isotonic drink and its to restore energy. 100Plus also more cheaper then another isotonic drink.MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY 100 PLUS 100 PLUS Abraham Maslow is well renowned for proposing the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in 1943. This theory is a classical depiction of human motivation. This theory is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy of five needs within each individual. The urgency of these needs varies. These five needs are as follows- Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of air, water, food, clothing and shelter. In other words, physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life.Safety needs- Safety needs include physical, environm ental and emotional safety and protection. For instance- Job security, financial security, protection from animals, family security, health security, etc. Social needs- Social needs include the need for love, affection, care, belongingness, and friendship. Esteem needs- Esteem needs are of two types: internal esteem needs (self- respect, confidence, competence, achievement and freedom) and external esteem needs (recognition, power, status, attention and admiration).Self-actualization need- This include the urge to become what you are capable of becoming / what you have the potential to become. It includes the need for growth and self-contentment. It also includes desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity and being aesthetic. The self- actualization needs are never fully satiable. As an individual grows psychologically, opportunities keep cropping up to continue growing. From this theory that 100plus at the esteem needs level because people need it to restore ene rgy to make they achieve what they target and make people proud to them.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Black History Month and Lesser Known African-Americans

The term little known black Americans can refer to all the people who have made contributions to America and to civilization, but whose names are not as well-known as many others or not known at all. For instance, we hear about Martin Luther King Jr., George Washington Carver, Sojourner Truth, Rosa Parks, and many other famous Black Americans, but what have you heard about Edward Bouchet, or Bessie Coleman, or Matthew Alexander Henson? Black Americans have been making contributions to America from the start, but like countless other Americans whose achievements have altered and enriched our lives, these Black Americans remain unknown. Its important, though, to point out their contributions because too often people dont realize that Black Americans have been making contributions to our country from its inception. In many cases, what they accomplished they managed to do against all odds, in spite of overwhelming obstacles. These people are an inspiration to everyone who finds him or herself in circumstances that seem impossible to overcome. Early Contributions In 1607, English settlers arrived in what would later become Virginia and founded a settlement they named Jamestown. In 1619, a Dutch ship arrived in Jamestown and traded its cargo of slaves for food. Many of these slaves later were freemen with their own land, contributing to the success of the colony. We do know some of their names, like Anthony Johnson, and its a pretty interesting story. But Africans were involved in more than settling Jamestown. Some were part of the early explorations of the New World. For example, Estevanico, a slave from Morocco, was part of a group who had been asked by the Mexican Viceroy in 1536 to go on an expedition into the territories that are now Arizona and New Mexico. He went ahead of the groups leader and was the first non-native to set foot in those lands. While most Blacks originally arrived in America primarily as slaves, many were free by the time the Revolutionary War was fought. One of these was Crispus Attucks, the son of a slave. Most of them, though, like so many who fought in that war, remain relatively nameless to us. But anyone who thinks that it was only the white man who chose to fight for the principle of individual freedom might want to take a look at the Forgotten Patriots Project from the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution). They have documented the names of thousands of African-Americans, Native Americans, and those of mixed heritage who fought against the British for freedom. Not-So-Famous Black Americans You Should Know George Washington Carver (1864-1943)Carver is a well-known African-American. Who isnt aware of his work with peanuts? Hes on this list, though, because of one of his contributions that we dont often hear about: The Tuskegee Institute Movable School. Carver established this school to introduce modern agricultural techniques and tools to farmers in Alabama. Movable schools are now used around the world.Edward Bouchet (1852-1918)Bouchet was the son of a former slave who had moved to New Haven, Connecticut. Only three schools there accepted Black students at the time, so Bouchets educational opportunities were limited. However, he managed to get admitted to Yale and became the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. and the 6th American of any race to earn one in physics. Although segregation prevented him from attaining the kind of position he should have been able to get with his outstanding credentials (6th in his graduating class), he taught for 26 years at the Institute for Colored Y outh, serving as an inspiration to generations of young African-Americans.Jean Baptiste Point du Sable (1745?-1818)DuSable was a Black man from Haiti is who is credited with founding Chicago. His father was a Frenchman in Haiti and his mother was an African slave. Its not clear how he arrived in New Orleans from Haiti, but once he did, he traveled from there to what is now modern-day Peoria, Illinois. Although he was not the first to pass through the area, he was the first to establish a permanent settlement, where he lived for at least twenty years. He set up a trading post on the Chicago River, where it meets Lake Michigan, and became a wealthy man with a reputation as a man of good character and sound business acumen.Matthew Alexander Henson (1866-1955)Henson was the son of free-born tenant farmers, but his early life was difficult. He started his life as an explorer at the age of eleven when he ran away from an abusive home. In 1891, Henson went with Robert Peary on the first of several trips to Greenland. Peary was determined to find the geographic North Pole. In 1909, Peary and Henson went on what was to be their final trip, the one on which they reached the North Pole. Henson was actually the first to set foot on the North Pole, but when the two returned home, it was Peary who received all the credit. Because he was Black, Henson was virtually ignored.Bessie Coleman (1892 -1926)Bessie Coleman was one of 13 children born to a Native American father and an African-American mother. They lived in Texas and faced the kinds of difficulties many Black Americans faced at the time, including segregation and disenfranchisement. Bessie worked hard in her childhood, picking cotton and helping her mother with the laundry she took in. But Bessie didnt let any of it stop her. She educated herself and managed to graduate from high school. After seeing some newsreels on aviation, Bessie became interested in becoming a pilot, but no U.S flight schools would accept her be cause she was Black and because she was female. Undeterred, she saved enough money to go to France where she heard women could be pilots. In 1921, she became the first Black woman in the world to earn a pilots license.Lewis Latimer (1848-1928)Latimer was the son of runaway slaves who had settled in Chelsea, Massachusetts. After serving in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War, Latimer got a job as an office boy in a patent office. Because of his ability to draw, he became a draftsman, eventually getting promoted to be the head draftsman. Although he has a large number of inventions to his name, including a safety elevator, perhaps his greatest achievement is his work on the electric light bulb. We can thank him for the success of Edisons lightbulb, which originally had a lifespan of just a few days. It was Latimer who found a way to create a filament system that prevented the carbon in the filament from breaking, thereby extending the life of the lightbulb. Thanks to Latimer, lightbulb s became cheaper and more efficient, which made it possible for them to be installed in homes and on the ​streets. Latimer was the only Black American on Edisons elite team of inventors. What we  love about the biographies of these six people is that not only did they have exceptional talent, but they did not allow the circumstances of their birth to determine who they were or what they could accomplish. That is certainly a lesson for all of us.